# Maximising Efficiency: Understanding the Inventory Turnover Ratio Formula

How efficiently a company manages inventory reveals the levels of holding costs, operational efficiency, stock levels, and customer satisfaction. In fact, Reducing stock-outs and overstocks can lower inventory costs by 10%. So, estimating the efficiency of inventory management is crucial for a business. That’s what the inventory turnover ratio formula is about. Gauging the amount of inventory moved gives a peek into a company’s inventory operations.

It is the ratio of the cost of sold goods to the average Inventory holding over a period. Seeking to maximise the efficiency of inventory is a good idea for businesses. However, one must use the formula with caution: sometimes, it may not point to mismanagement of inventory. Wondering how?

Herein, we will discuss the inventory turnover ratio meaning and its calculation, tips to increase the inventory turnover, and limitations to its application.

## What is Inventory Turnover Ratio Formula

The inventory turnover ratio formula is equal to the cost of goods sold divided by the average inventory held over a particular period. It is also known as the stock turnover ratio. The formula is used to estimate the efficiency of inventory management over a specific duration. In other words,

Inventory Turnover Ratio= Cost of Goods Sold / Average Inventory

Here,

• The cost of goods sold (COGS) represents the expenses incurred in producing the goods that a company sells within a specified timeframe. It can be retrieved from a company’s income statement.
• Average inventory refers to the mean value of inventory held over the same timeframe.

It is important to achieve a high inventory turnover ratio, which indicates efficient stock management. It also means that a company has incurred less storage and inventory holding costs. The inventory turnover ratio formula is an important metric among competitor industries. While comparing different industries is redundant, the benchmark ratio shows variation between them.

## Average Inventory Formula

The inventory turnover ratio formula calculates the average inventory to account for the fluctuating nature of stocks over a particular period. However, the cost of goods sold is mentioned directly on a company’s balance sheets.

The average inventory formula is equal to the ratio of the sum of inventory at the beginning and end of a period to the duration of the period. It smoothes out the stock fluctuations to give a mean value.

Average inventory=Beginning Inventory+Ending Inventory / Inventory Holding Period

The inventory holding period can be months, weeks, or days, depending on the estimates’ requirements. When it is days, the inventory turnover ratio formula also gives output on a “per day” basis.

## Inventory Turnover Ratio Example

Let’s put things in perspective through an example to calculate inventory turnover.

A company had the following data for a year:

• Beginning Inventory: \$50,000
• Ending Inventory: \$40,000
• Cost of Goods Sold (COGS): \$400,000

To calculate the inventory turnover ratio, find the average inventory:

Average inventory=Beginning Inventory+Ending Inventory / Inventory Holding Period
= \$50,000 + \$40,000 / 2
= \$45,000

Now,

Inventory Turnover Ratio= Cost of Goods Sold/Average Inventory = \$400,000 / \$45,000 ~8.89

The inventory turnover ratio for this company is approximately 8.89. Thus, the company sells its entire inventory nearly nine times over within the given period.

## Constraints of Inventory Turnover Ratio

• Comparing similar companies is where inventory turnover is most effective. The benchmark ratio shows wide variations for different industries.
• The formula for the inventory turnover ratio may not reflect reality. A high ratio could also signal stockouts. A low turnover may mean overstocking. For example, from cost-saving bulk orders or product launches.
• Changes in production costs or raw material prices can impact turnover ratios.
• Pushing inventory turnover through discounts or closeouts harms profits. It also hurts return on investment (ROI).
• The method used to value inventory affects the calculation of COGS. Methods include specific identification and weighted average cost. So, different ways to value inventory can lead to different turnover ratios.
• Seasonal changes can change the inventory turnover ratio meaning and make it less reliable. For example, a high turnover ratio during peak seasons might mean something other than good inventory management.
• Differences in supply lead times can affect turnover ratios. This is especially true when calculating average inventory levels. Longer lead times mean higher average inventory levels and lower turnover ratios.

## How to Increase Inventory Turnover Profitably

Effective inventory management requires careful forecasting and automation. Merchants should analyse sales data and identify trends to accurately forecast demand. Inventory management software can streamline processes, providing real-time updates on stock levels and facilitating prompt restocking. It is indispensable for businesses to streamline operations and ensure optimal inventory turnover.

Companies must adopt effective marketing strategies for enhancing inventory turnover. Targeted marketing efforts can promote sales of slow-moving items and expand market reach. Offering special discounts and promotions for old stock can move the old inventory. However, ensure it doesn’t bite on profitability.

Moreover, prioritising fast and reliable shipping is essential for customer satisfaction and repeat business. Partnering with 3PLs is a good idea. Ultimately, it is customer demand that drives efficient inventory management and sales acceleration.

## Related Inventory Formulas

The inventory-to-sales ratio compares inventories with net sales instead of the cost of sales. It is the inverse of the inventory turnover ratio.

Similarly, the day’s inventory sales (DSI) represents the average number of days it takes to convert inventory into sales. DSI is calculated by dividing the average inventory value by the cost of sales (COGS) and multiplying by 365.

It is also known as a stock turnover ratio in days, inventory turnover days, or days inventory outstanding (DIO). The stock turnover ratio formula in days is,

Stock Turnover Ratio (in days) = 365/Inventory Turnover Ratio

The stock turnover ratio formula in days gives the average number of days it takes for a company to sell its entire inventory.

## Conclusion

The inventory turnover ratio formula gives a peek into a company’s stock management aspects. Every company must estimate this ratio after getting its balance sheets. However, you must have learned that the formula may not represent the truth in all circumstances. That is why going deep into the inventory turnover ratio meaning is important for inventory managers.

For example, gaining on the ratio while compromising on profitability is not a wise choice. A combination of human wisdom and mathematical skill is necessary to get the formula in the right spot.

## FAQs

### What is the formula of inventory turnover ratio?

Inventory turnover ratio formula is equal to the cost of goods sold divided by the average inventory held over a particular period of time. It is also known as the stock turnover ratio. The formula is used to estimate the efficiency of inventory management over a specific duration.
Inventory Turnover Ratio= Cost of Goods Sold/Average Inventory

### What is a good inventory turnover ratio?

The best turnover ratio is 5 to 10 for most industries. It suggests that inventory is sold and restocked every 1-2 months. It keeps a balance between inventory levels and reordering frequency

### How to calculate inventory turnover ratio from the balance sheet?

To calculate the inventory turnover ratio from the balance sheet, divide the cost of goods sold (COGS) by the average inventory. Do this over some time. COGS can be found on the income statement. Average inventory is the ratio of the sum of the beginning and ending inventory, and 2.

### What is the debtors turnover ratio formula?

The debtors turnover ratio formula is a crucial financial ratio. It estimates a company’s liquidity and cash flow. To use the formula, divide net credit sales by average accounts receivable.

Net credit sales are total sales on credit minus returns or allowances. To find average accounts receivable, average the beginning and ending balances.